Your Weekly Food-Like-Product – MIO Energy Drink


A few ingredients in MIO Energy Drinks

(1.) Propylene Glycol

Used as an active ingredient in engine coolants and antifreeze; airplane deicers; polyurethane cushions; paints, enamels and varnishes; and in many products as a solvent or surfactant

Studies done in vitro tests on mammalian cells revealed that some cells underwent mutation.

The substance may be toxic to central nervous system Do not ingest Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Wear suitable  protective clothing. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label.

Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Empty containers pose a fire risk

Personal Protection: Splash goggles. Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves.

Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill: Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Boots. Gloves. Consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product.

Acute Potential Health Effects:

  • Skin: May cause mild skin irritation. It may be absorbed through the skin and cause systemic effects similar to those of ingestion.
  • Eyes: May cause mild eye irritation with some immediate, transitory stinging, lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mild transient conjunctival hyperemia.
  • Ingestion: It may cause gastrointestinal tract irritation. It may affect behavior/central nervous system(CNS depression, general anesthetic, convulsions, seizures, somnolence, stupor, muscle contraction or spasticity, coma), brain (changes in surface EEG), metabolism, blood (intravascular hemolysis, white blood cells – decreased neutrophil function), respiration (respiratory stimulation, chronic pulmonary edema, cyanosis), cardiovascular system(hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest), endocrine system (hypoglycemia), urinary system (kidneys), and liver.

Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:

May affect genetic material (mutagenic). May cause adverse reproductive effects and birth defects (teratogenic) based on animal test data.

(2.) Monosodium Glutamate

Also known as…

  • Natural Flavor
  • Glutamic acid
  • Glutamate
  • Monosodium glutamate
  • Monopotassium glutamate
  • Calcium glutamate
  • Monoammonium glutamate
  • Magnesium glutamate
  • Natrium glutamate
  • Yeast extract
  • Anything “hydrolyzed”
  • Any “hydrolyzed protein”
  • Calcium caseinate
  • Sodium caseinate
  • Yeast food, Yeast nutrient
  • Autolyzed yeast
  • Gelatin
  • Textured protein
  • Soy protein,
  • Soy protein concentrate
  • Soy protein isolate
  • Whey protein
  • Whey protein concentrate
  • Whey protein isolate
  • Anything “…protein”
  • Vetsin
  • Ajinomoto


Names of ingredients that often contain or produce processed free glutamic acid:

  • Carrageenan
  • Bouillon and broth
  • Stock
  • Any “flavors” or “flavoring”
  • Maltodextrin
  • Citric acid, Citrate
  • Anything “ultra-pasteurized”
  • Barley malt
  • Pectin
  • Protease
  • Anything “enzyme modified”
  • Anything containing “enzymes”
  • Malt extract
  • Soy sauce
  • Soy sauce extract
  • Anything “protein fortified”
  • Anything “fermented”
  • Seasonings


After a single dose of MSG, Doctors discovered that specialized cells in a critical area of the animal’s brain, the hypothalamus, had been destroyed.

Millions of babies all over the world were eating baby foods containing large amounts of MSG and hydrolyzed vegetable protein (a compound which contains three excitotoxins).


  • Protein class of substances that damage neurons through paroxysmal overactivity. They are toxins that bind to certain receptors (e.g., certain glutamate receptors) and may cause neuronal cell death.-
  • Samuels (1999) reported that MSG is a neurotoxic agent i.e. causing damage to brain cells, retinal degeneration, leading to many endocrine disorders and causes renal damage.
  • The best known excitotoxins are the excitatory amino acids that can produce lesions in the CNS (Central Nervous System) similar to those of Huntingdon’s chorea or alzheimers disease.
  • Excitotoxicity is thought to contribute to neuronal cell death associated with stroke.

Rats given free access to MSG and water showed a high preference (93-97%) for the MSG solution, regardless of the diet they consumed

Rats treated with MSG showed morphological and morphometric changes as decrease in testicular weight, decrease in tubular diameter, reduction in germinal epithelium height, decrease in the spermatic count and abnormalities of sperms morphology.

Many studies reported the implication of (MSG) in cases of male infertility as it causes testicular hemorrhage, degeneration and alteration of sperm cell population and morphology

(Only a couple steps of the processing of MSG)

  • MSG is processed with methylthiopropionaldehyde and sodium hydroxide which both are higly corrosive and toxic.
  • “After the concentration of DAP had reached a maximum in the presence of the first mutant, the first mutant was removed and another E. coli strain was added.”
  • “The crude, crystalline glutamic acid is first suspended in water and then dissolved, neutralized and converted to the monosodium salt by the addition of sodium hydroxide.”
  • “The acidic filtrate was then adjusted by addition of sodium hydroxide or ammonia”

These products are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides and some metallic oxides. Burning may produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides.

Other Classifications:

WHMIS (Canada): CLASS D-2A: Material causing other toxic effects (VERY TOXIC).

(3.) Acesulfame Potassium

Acesulfame Potassium may be safely used as a general-purpose sweetener and flavor enhancer in foods generally. Containes flroride and lead

The compound is not metabolized by the body but it also hampers the ability of the body to metabolize other food products.

Acesulfame-K may contribute to hypoglemica.

People suffering from diabetes might think this compound is best for their taste buds but excess usage of this compound may stimulate the release of insulin and result in hypoglycemia. Mental confusion, liver and kidney problems, headaches, depression, nausea, dizziness, visual disturbances, etc. are some of its other side effects.

In the production of Acesulfame K, Methylene Chloride – a carcinogenic compound, is used. This may result in the development of cancerous cells. Research on rats has revealed that it may result in lung and breast cancer.

Long term exposure to methylene chloride: nausea, headaches, mood problems, impairment of the liver and kidneys, problems with eyesight and possibly cancer.

Acesulfame-K has undergone the least scientific scrutiny. Early studies showed a potential link between the sweetener and development of multiple cancers in laboratory animals.

The 1970s tests of acesulfame—two tests carried out in rats and one in mice—are inadequate to establish lack of potential carcinogenicity. Here are a few reasons why the tests are inadequate

[Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) 1996]:

  • Sub chronic tests were not conducted for the rats and mice used in the tests on which the FAPs rested
  • It is likely the minimum toxic dose/maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not achieved in the rat and mouse studies
  • Randomization of test groups was not carried out properly
  • Mice were held on test for only 80 weeks, rather than the 104 weeks characteristic of National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassays
  • Animal husbandry and monitoring of animals on test were evidently poor, as indicated by high disease rates in the animals and extensive autolysis of tissues.

Acute Potential Health Effects:

  • Skin: May cause skin irritation.
  • Eyes: May cause eye irritation.
  • Inhalation: May causerespiratory tract irritation and mucous membrane irritation.
  • Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, cramps, loss of appetite. It may affect the blood (slight increase in hemoglobin concentration)

Aggravated by Exposure: Hemachromatosis, thalassemia, sideroblastic or Sickle Cell anemia.

Prolonged or repeated ingestion may affect the liver (liver degeneration)and kidneys (nephropathy), and may cause weight loss.

Other Regulations:

OSHA: Hazardous by definition of Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200).

EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.

(4.) Red #40

Red 40 is the FDA-approved version of Allura Red, which was first produced by Allied Chemical Corp. It is approved for use in beverages, bakery goods, dessert powders, candies, cereals, foods, drugs, and cosmetics and, in terms of pounds consumed, is by far the most-used dye

Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 contain Benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low, presumably safe levels in dyes. The FDA does not test for bound benzidine when it certifies the purity of dyes. Signs and Symptoms of Exposure: Liver injury may occur., Kidney injury may occur., Blood disorders, Nausea, Vomiting 

Benzidine has been shown to cause bladder cancer and is a mutagen, may cause genitic changes

Red 40 proved positive as an allergin. Possible carcinogen contaminent include p-Cresidine. There is evidence, albeit controversial and inconclusive, that Red 40, the most widely used dye, accelerates the appearance of tumors of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. No tumors were found in the only good study (per the FDA)

It also may accelerate the appearance of immune-system tumors in mice. The dye causes hypersensitivity (allergy-like) reactions in a small number of consumers and might trigger hyperactivity in children.

Red 40 was negative in the majority of genotoxicity assays performed, but positive in the in vivo comet assay in the glandular stomach, lungs, and colon of mice (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002). That indicates that Red 40 can cause DNA damage in vivo

52 patients suffering from urticaria and angioedema for more than 4 weeks were placed on a 3-week elimination diet. Red 40 administered orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg induced a hypersensitivity reaction in 15% of the patients who were generally symptom-free at the time of provocation (Mikkelsen, Larson et al. 1978).

Dr. M. Adrian Gross, a senior FDA pathologist, concluded that there was clear evidence to support an acceleration effect of RE tumors because there was a decreased latency period without a corresponding increase in overall tumor incidence

“Considering the safety questions and its non-essentiality, Red 40 should be excluded from foods unless and until new tests clearly demonstrate its safety.”

Genotoxicity studies

  • Comet Assay; DNA damage; 10 mg/kg in colon; 100 mg/kg in glandular stomach; 1,000 mg/kg in lungs Positive (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002)
  • Comet Assay; DNA damage; 2,000 mg/kg to pregnant mice; 10 mg/kg in male mice; Positive in colon (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002)

Emergency Overview: CAUTION – Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.

Potential Health Effects:

  • Eyes: May cause irritation.
  • Skin: May cause irritation to skin.
  • Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal discomfort.
  • Inhalation: May cause irritation to respiratory tract.

Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Avoid Dusting. May become explosive when dispersed in air.

Precautions to Take in Handling or Storing: Do not ingest or take internally.

Consult an expert on disposal of recovered material and ensure conformity to local, state, and federal disposal regulations

These products are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides

Do not ingest. Do not breathe dust. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label.

Personal Protective Equipment:

  • Protective Gloves: Natural rubber, Neoprene, PVC or equivalent.
  • Eye Protection: Splash proof chemical safety goggles should be worn.
  • Other Protective Clothing or Equipment: Lab coat, apron, eye wash, safety shower.

EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances

(5.) Blue #1

FD&C Blue No. 1 may be safely used for coloring foods (including dietary supplements)

FD&C Blue No. 1 or Brilliant Blue, 9 is a water-soluble coloring used in many baked goods, beverages, dessert powders, candies, cereals, drugs, and other products. Blue 1 received FDA approval for general use in foods and ingested drugs in 1969. Also it contains Arsenic and Lead

Test tube study found inhibition of nerve-cell development. Blue 1 may not cause cancer, but confirmatory studies should be conducted.

Blue 1 is classified as an allergin. One abstract study on mice reported kidney tumors. The dye can cause hypersensitivity reactions.

Blue 1 is not susceptible to breakdown by intestinal microbiota, but up to 5% is absorbed via the GI tract However, Blue 1 caused chromosomal aberrations in two studies (Ishidate, Senoo et al. 1974; Hayashi, Matsui et al. 2000).

Rowland performed a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study on Blue 1 in 48 males/group and 50 females/group of mice. The mice were administered 0, 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5% Blue 1 in their diets for only 80 weeks. Seven out of the surviving 30 male mice in the 0.15% group had kidney tumors compared to only 1 kidney tumor in the 44 surviving controls. Females in the 2% group had a significant decrease in terminal mean body weight (15%) and decreased survival compared to controls.

Blue 1 might possibly have potent effects, and it might take only a small absorbed amount to affect a child’s brain development

A review by the IARC of a study (published only in abstract form) states that male mice had a statistically significant increased incidence of kidney tumors in the mid-dose group.

Also, in an in vitro test, Blue 1 inhibited neurite growth and acted synergistically with L-glutamic acid, suggesting the potential for neurotoxicity. That is particularly worrisome for fetuses and babies under the age of six months whose blood-brain barrier is not fully developed. Further research needs to be conducted before this dye can be considered safe.

Genotoxicity studies

  • Cytogenetics Assay; Chromosomal Aberrations; Positive (Hayashi, Matsui et al. 2000)
  • Chromosomal aberration test, CHL cells; Chromosomal aberrations; 5 mg/ml; Positive (Ishidate, Sofuni et al.1984)

Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:

May cause cancer based on animal data. May affect genetic material (mutagenic)

Acute Potential Health Effects:

  • Skin: May cause skin irritation
  • Eyes: May cause eye irritation.
  • Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation.
  • Ingestion: May cause digestive tract irritation. May affect behavior.

The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated

Personal Protection: Splash goggles. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves

Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill: Splash goggles. Full suit. Dust respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product.

These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2…), sulfur oxides (SO2, SO3…). Some metallic oxides.

Federal and State Regulations:

  • Massachusetts RTK: FD&C Blue 1
  • New Jersey: FD&C Blue 1 TSCA 8(b) inventory: FD&C Blue 1

Other Regulations:

EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.


  • R33- Danger of cumulative effects.
  • S24/25- Avoid contact with skin and eyes.


John Parks
For two years I've thoroughly enjoyed researching the food additives "scientests" produce and put into all processed food. Also how the FDA classifies them as G.R.A.S. (Generally Recognized As Safe) With about 95% of the research I've done over the last two years the actual science, toxicity reports, manufacturing processes and pure technical aspect of it suggests otherwise.

When you see something that is "hazardous by definition", toxic, poisonous or corrosive and it's in the food you're eating, you would surely have to stop, think and ask, "That's going to go in me. Wait... It passes through the placental barrier? It decreases the testicular weight in mice? It's produced with volvano ash? It's processed with asbestos and krypton gas?"

Now, my main argument is this: If you know the food additive is toxic, corrosive or hazardous by definition, if it requires flammable or corrosive DOT stickers while transporting, if it has saftey precautions, spill procedures and you must wear suitable protective clothing while handling... Can you even assume it's safe to eat?

Irregardless of the exposure limits, the actual amount in food itself, how many regulations and standards there are or how low the toxicity may be... It is the general principle that the additives are still put in the foods you eat on a daily basis. I personally don't believe that when a tomato is dropped you have to evacuate the area and seal off the exits. Because that is exactly the procedure for some of the chemcial agents the FDA allowed in food.