Doritos Pt. 2
(5.) Red #40
Dyes are complex organic chemicals that were originally derived from coal tar, but now from petroleum.
Red 40 is the FDA-approved version of Allura Red, which was first produced by Allied Chemical Corp. It is approved for use in beverages, bakery goods, dessert powders, candies, cereals, foods, drugs, and cosmetics and, in terms of pounds consumed, is by far the most-used dye
Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 contain Benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low, presumably safe levels in dyes. The FDA does not test for bound Benzidine when it certifies the purity of dyes.
Red 40 proved positive as an allergin. Possible carcinogen contaminant include p-Cresidine. There is evidence, albeit controversial and inconclusive, that Red 40, the most widely used dye, accelerates the appearance of tumors of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. No tumors were found in the only good study (per the FDA)
It also may accelerate the appearance of immune-system tumors in mice. The dye causes hypersensitivity (allergy-like) reactions in a small number of consumers and might trigger hyperactivity in children.
Red 40 was negative in the majority of genotoxicity assays performed, but positive in the in vivo comet assay in the glandular stomach, lungs, and colon of mice (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002). That indicates that Red 40 can cause DNA damage in vivo
52 patients suffering from urticaria and angioedema for more than 4 weeks were placed on a 3-week elimination diet. Red 40 administered orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg induced a hypersensitivity reaction in 15% of the patients who were generally symptom-free at the time of provocation (Mikkelsen, Larson et al. 1978).
Dr. M. Adrian Gross, a senior FDA pathologist, concluded that there was clear evidence to support an acceleration effect of RE tumors because there was a decreased latency period without a corresponding increase in overall tumor incidence
“Considering the safety questions and its non-essentiality, Red 40 should be excluded from foods unless and until new tests clearly demonstrate its safety.”
- Comet Assay; DNA damage; 10 mg/kg in colon; 100 mg/kg in glandular stomach; 1,000 mg/kg in lungs Positive (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002)
- Comet Assay; DNA damage; 2,000 mg/kg to pregnant mice; 10 mg/kg in male mice; Positive in colon (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002)
Emergency Overview: CAUTION – Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
Potential Health Effects:
- Eyes: May cause irritation.
- Skin: May cause irritation to skin.
- Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal discomfort.
- Inhalation: May cause irritation to respiratory tract.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Avoid Dusting. May become explosive when dispersed in air.
Precautions to Take in Handling or Storing: Do not ingest or take internally.
Consult an expert on disposal of recovered material and ensure conformity to local, state, and federal disposal regulations
These products are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides
Do not ingest. Do not breathe dust. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label.
Personal protective equipment:
- Protective Gloves: Natural rubber, Neoprene, PVC or equivalent.
- Eye Protection: Splash proof chemical safety goggles should be worn.
- Other Protective Clothing or Equipment: Lab coat, apron, eye wash, safety shower.
EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances
(6.) Yellow #5 & #6
Used in numerous bakery goods, beverages, dessert powders, candies, cereals, gelatin desserts, pet food, and many other foods, as well as pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
After Red 40, it is the most widely used dye.
The color additive is manufactured with Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Nitrite or Sulfuric Acid and sodium nitrite. Also contains Mercury, Arsenic and Lead.
Yellow 5 may be contaminated with several carcinogens, including Benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl. Caused genotoxic effects in six out of 11 studies More importantly, FDA tests in the early 1990s found that some batches of dye contained as much as 83 ppb of free and bound Benzidine. The FDA does not test for bound Benzidine when it certifies the purity of dyes
Because of those toxicological considerations, including carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity reactions, and behavioral effects, food dyes cannot be considered safe
In addition to considerations of organ damage, cancer, birth defects, and allergic reactions, mixtures of dyes (and Yellow 5 tested alone) cause hyperactivity and other behavioral problems in some children. Because of that concern, the British government advised companies to stop using most food dyes by the end of 2009, Posing some risks, while serving no nutritional or safety purpose, Yellow 5 should not be allowed in foods.
A 50-mg dose of Tartrazine led to increased or accelerated urinary excretion of zinc in hyperactive children
The only mouse study was too brief, used too few mice, and began with six week old mice. (Per the FDA)
Sasaki et al. subsequently demonstrated that Yellow 5 does induce DNA damage in vivo in the comet assay (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002).
The earliest chronic feeding study reported that Yellow 5 was not carcinogenic or toxic in a 2-year study using rats. The rats were fed 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% Yellow 5. However, that study used only 12 rats of each sex per dosage group (Davis, Fitzhugh et al. 1964).
The FDA recommends a minimum of 20 rodents/ sex/group for chronic toxicity studies, though many experts consider that far too small a number (FDA 2000). Also, the rats were not exposed in utero.
Neuman reported mthat 26% of patients with a variety of allergic disorders had a positive allergic reaction 10-15 minutes after ingesting 50 mg of the dye. Those reactions included heat-wave, general weakness, blurred vision, increased nasopharyngeal secretions, a feeling of suffocation, palpitations, pruritus (severe itching), angioedema (swelling or welts below the skin), and urticaria (Neuman, Elian et al. 1978).
An association between aspirin-intolerance and Tartrazine-sensitivity has been demonstrated in several studies. Stenius and Lemola separately administered aspirin and Yellow 5 to 96 patients and found that about half of the patients with positive reactions to aspirin also had positive reactions to Yellow 5, and about three-fifths of the positive Yellow 5 cases also had positive aspirin reactions (Stenius and Lemola 1976).
- Comet Assay; DNA damage; 10 mg/kg; Positive (colon) Positive (glandular stomach) (Sasaki, Kawaguchi et al. 2002)
- Cytogenetics Assay; Chromosomal aberrations; Positive (Hayashi, Matsui et al. 2000)
- S. Typhimurium TA1535, TA100, TA92; Base pair; 2.5 mg/ml; Positive
- Chromosomal aberration test, CHL cells; Chromosomal aberrations; 6 mg/ml; Positive (Ishidate, Sofuni et al. 1984)
- In vitro Muntiacus muntjac; Chromosomal aberrations; 3 μg/ml; Positive (Patterson and Butler 1982)
A 42-year-old woman gradually developed chronic nasal blockage, loss of her senses of taste and smell, and asthma. She was eventually hospitalized— sometimes for weeks—three times for her asthma, which developed into a tight, unproductive cough and severe wheezing. Several years later she developed severe angioedema after taking two aspirin tablets. She also developed the same attacks from Tylenol and several other drugs, including antibiotics. She was cleared of all drugs, but her symptoms returned after she received Premarin, a menopausal drug that contained Yellow 5. The patient was finally diagnosed with an allergy to Yellow 5 and several other food additives. Her severe attacks were relieved when she stopped consuming all synthetic dyes, sodium benzoate, and drugs containing dyes (Chafee and Settipane 1967).
A 15-year-old pregnant girl went into anaphylactic shock after she was given an enema that contained Yellow 5 and Yellow 6. Approximately 5 minutes after administration of the enema the patient became dizzy, sweaty, and hypotensive; she collapsed and was unconscious. Her blood pressure became unrecordable and her carotid pulses were “weak.” Her skin became red all over. After she regained consciousness, she was nauseous, had dull perception, and eventually developed hives, chest tightness, and shortness of breath (Trautlein and Mann 1978). Subsequent tests indicated that she was sensitive to both Yellow 5 and Yellow 6.
A 38-year-old man experienced relapsing angioneurotic (subcutaneous) edema, giant urticaria, and a relapsing vascular purpura (purple spots). After provocation with Yellow 5, the test area became purpuric and there was purpura, swelling of the legs, and angioneurotic edema of the face (Michaelsson, Pettersson et al. 1974).
A 32-year-old woman experienced recurring purpuric lesions on her lower legs. The lesions sometimes became more intense with ulcerations, pain, and swelling of the legs. She had occasional superficial thrombophlebitis (swelling of a vein caused by a blood clot). She experienced those symptoms 4-8 times a year, and they lasted about 2-3 weeks. Provocation with Yellow 5 induced purpura in the treated area (Michaelsson, Pettersson et al. 1974).
Protective Equipment: Gloves. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Wear appropriate respirator when ventilation is inadequate. Splash goggles.
The products of degradation are more toxic.
These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2…), sulfur oxides (SO2, SO3…). Some metallic oxides.
Other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Very hazardous in case of inhalation. Hazardous in case of ingestion.
WHMIS (Canada): CLASS D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (TOXIC).
Sucrose elevates uric acid, which decreases nitric oxide, raises angiotensin, and causes your smooth muscle cells to contract, thereby raising your blood pressure and potentially damaging your kidneys.
Leads to insulin resistance, which is not only an underlying factor of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, but also many cancers.
Tricks your body into gaining weight by fooling your metabolism, as it turns off your body’s appetite-control system. Fructose does not appropriately stimulate insulin, which in turn does not suppress ghrelin (the “hunger hormone”) and doesn’t stimulate leptin (the “satiety hormone”), which together result in your eating more and developing insulin resistance.
Sucrose rapidly leads to weight gain and abdominal obesity (“beer belly”), decreased HDL, increased LDL, elevated triglycerides, elevated blood sugar, and high blood pressure—i.e., classic metabolic syndrome
The cells of many human cancers come to depend on insulin to provide the fuel (blood sugar) and materials they need to grow and multiply. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (and related growth factors) also provide the signal, in effect, to do it.
The more insulin, the better they do.
Some cancers develop mutations that serve the purpose of increasing the influence of insulin on the cell; others take advantage of the elevated insulin levels that are common to metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes Some do both.
Many pre-cancerous cells would never acquire the mutations that turn them into malignant tumors if they weren’t being driven by insulin to take up more and more blood sugar and metabolize it.”
Liquid medicines, particularly those intended for children, often formulated as syrups, usually based on sucrose. Total sugar content may be up to 80% (w/v). Complicated diabetes management. Increased dental caries especially in chronically sick children (eg, asthmatics or epileptics) who frequently take liquid medicine.
Sucrose is reported to be capable of producing dermatoses in bakers, candy makers, and related occupations. It is well established that uncontrolled glucose conc in maternal blood are associated with elevated embryonic and fetal death and increased neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Sucrose was not carcinogenic, but showed tumor promoting activity in female Swiss albino mice
Sucrose produced skeletal changes in a guinea pig fetus after feeding the mother 5 to 10 g sucrose/kg body weight in the latter half of pregnancy.
A high resorption rate and an increased number of malformed offspring were seen in rats fed a diet composed of 72% sucrose, 18% casein, and 5% butter plus vitamins and a salt mixture.
Refined granulated sugar processing
The next step is decolorization, which removes soluble impurities by adsorption. The two most common adsorbents are granular activated carbon and bone char, manufactured from degreased cattle bones.
Chemicals used for processing
- Isopropyl Alcohol A clear, colorless, flammable, mobile liquid, (CH3)2CHOH, used in antifreeze compounds, in lotions and cosmetics, and as a solvent for gums, shellac, and essential oils.
- Phosphoric Acid A clear colorless liquid, H3PO4, used in fertilizers, detergents, food flavoring, and pharmaceuticals.
- Acrylic Acid An easily polymerized, colorless, corrosive liquid, H2C:CHCOOH, used as a monomer for acrylate resins.
(8.) Disodium Inosinate and Disodium Guanylate
The food additive disodium inosinate may be safely used in food.
Disodium guanylate may be safely used as a flavor enhancer in foods.
Both are produced by the enzymatic breakdown of yeast.
The food additive is the disodium salt of inosinic acid, manufactured and purified so as to contain no more than 150 parts per million of soluble barium
Inosinic acid is a nucleotide present in muscle and other tissues. It is formed by the deamination of AMP and when hydrolysed produces inosine. Inosinic acid is the ribonucleotide of hypoxanthine and is the first compound formed during the synthesis of purine.
(In addition, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate — expensive flavor potentiaters that work synergistically with processed free glutamic acid (MSG) — and are only cost effective when used with processed free glutamic acid (MSG))
True synergism requires that the perceived intensity of a mixture be greater than that predicted by both types of additivity. Subjects used magnitude estimation to judge the perceived intensity of unmixed monosodium glutamate and disodium guanylate and mixtures of these two taste substances. The mixtures showed synergism according to both crtieria. The robustness of this phenomenon is striking; for all subjects the taste mixtures showed true synergism. True synergism in taste is an extremely rare phenomenon.
(Basically what this says is these chemical combinations have a magical affect on the brain to make you THINK it tastes good.)